財團法人勵馨社會福利事業基金會
兒少性剝削 〉勵馨主張
少女人權宣言 2015/12/29

 少女人權宣言

前言:人權,是我們與生俱來的權利,就如社會化理論及發展理論所主張的─「人格的養成,受到其成長過程發展中生活經驗的影響」,唯有在重視人權的社會生活中,才能培養出人格完整、有自尊、能愛人又能自愛的國民,因此人類日益要求每個人本有的尊嚴和價值都能在生活中得到尊重與保護。

然而當有限的社會資源要分給眾多的人口時,通常未成年人和婦女是最容易被忽略的群體,而少女處於未成年與女性的雙重社會弱勢中,更需要透過積極性的教育、輔導和宣傳措施,重視少女人權之保障,而這也是女性人權之紮根工作。
檢視台灣目前的法制保障、社會經濟、教育文化、健康等人權保障最基本的環境要素,我們發現少女人權受到嚴重侵害與漠視,從以下社會問題與現象可見一般:

少女人身安全
根據台灣內政部警政署刑事警察局的統計,1997-2000年台灣地區性侵害受害人逐年增加,年齡分佈以12-17歲的少女為最多,其中近八成為熟識之人,由此可見受侵害少女在熟識關係中處於劣勢或受控制地位。

少女健康權
未成年有性經驗之比率日漸增加,然因自我保護概念不足,以致未成年懷孕問題嚴重,目前台灣未成年未婚懷孕之少女每年約產下一萬名嬰兒,對身心尚未成熟的少女造成重大壓力與傷害。此外,據調查少女一旦發現自己意外懷孕,約有55-60%會選擇墮胎,而少女因畏懼讓父母知道,75-80%少女會找密醫、透過非法管道購買墮胎藥自行墮胎等方式解決,嚴重危及少女健康與生命安全。

少女人格權被物化
在台灣利用少女形象做為商品附加價值的現象,從檳榔西施、酒店公關公主、泡沫紅茶辣妹,到電視節目與網站上的少女競賽,大眾看到的不是有感覺、有情緒、有思想的「人」,而是一個個帶著性暗示、任憑品評選擇的物體。此種將少女物化的價值觀亦透過傳播媒體反向灌輸給少女與其周遭的人,進而型塑少女本身自我形象的認知及他人對待少女的態度與方式,在在充斥著父權意識。


少女成為性剝削的客體

1995年台灣通過「兒童及少年性交易防制條例」,因此兒童少年性剝削的問題在法律上看似有法可治,但幾年下來,少女身體被商品化、成為性剝削客體的問題依舊存在,少女在打工、就業時面臨各式推陳出新的色情陷阱,從酒店公關公主、泡沫紅茶辣妹到目前盛行的援助交際,不同的性交易形式,性剝削本質卻是不變。

有鑑於上述少女問題嚴重,少女成長後,其被歧視、剝削、性別不平等的問題將從少女延伸到成年生活中,我們認為要做好女權的紮根工作,應從少女階段就開始進行,同時應採取預防性、發展性和補救性的法制方式來保障少女權利,而不是採補救式、選擇式的福利觀點來彌補缺失。

為了讓台灣少女能在有自尊、有價值、性別平等的環境中成長,在此公佈少女人權宣言。


第一條 保護少女不被性剝削
國家應保護少女不受任何形態的性剝削與性迫害,同時應特別採取國與國的雙邊及多邊的措施,以防治少女受性剝削與性迫害。

第二條 保護少女工作權,反少女商品化
為杜絕資本主義社會以少女身體、形象做為商品附加價值,及雇用少女從事情色工作這樣的社會現象,國家應制定適當的法令保障少女工作權,並禁止雇用少女從事危及健康、身心、精神、道德或社會發展的工作。

第三條 反性別暴力措施
為建立女性在公領域和私領域都能享有基本之人身安全權,除了透過立法、行政、社會等各種措施保障人身安全之外,更應無分性別地,從少年在開始學習發展家人以外的親密關係的階段,即積極發展反性別暴力措施,才能確保少女之基本人身安全。

第四條 防止少女意外懷孕,保障未婚懷孕少女基本權益
為預防少女因意外懷孕造成身心重大壓力與傷害,應透過各種教育、傳播方式教導少女避免意外懷孕,提供少女意外懷孕後所需之各項支持與服務,並保障少女在此階段之健康、教育等各種權益不會被剝奪。

第五條 身心障礙少女的保護
對身心障礙者的福利服務與保護措施,應特別加強性別觀點的保護,避免身心障礙少女成為暴力或性侵害的高危險群。


第六條 建構性別平等身份
性別刻板印象的複製和角色性別分工是對女性人權的剝奪,因此在性別認同發展的少年關鍵階段,家庭、學校、社會教育應強化少年性別平等意識,empower少女的自主性,建構性別平等的社會。

第七條 適當的少女資訊傳播
媒體對社會有重大影響,為避免少女人格權被物化,應鼓勵傳播媒體傳播有利於少女的社會與文化資訊,並發展適當的資訊指南。


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Declaration of Human Rights for Young Girls

 

Preamble

Human rights are rights that are inherent and inalienable. As the social theories and developmental theories propose: the development of personality is influenced by the life experiences accumulated during the process of growing up. Integrity, self-esteem, loving and self-love in citizens can only be developed in a society that values human rights. Therefore, human beings are demanding more respect and protection of the inherent esteem and value in their lives.


However, when limited social resources are to be distributed among the large populations, the under-aged and females are the two groups most easily ignored. Young girls are double-disadvantaged as they are both under-aged and are females who need protection for human rights through aggressive education, counseling and propaganda. This, at the same time, is an important laying of the foundation of women’s human rights.


In light of Taiwan’s basic elements of human rights protection scheme, such as the current legal protection system, socio-economic, educational-cultural, and health environments, we realize that young girls’ human rights are seriously infringed upon and ignored. These can be shown in the social problems and phenomenon listed as follows:

Girls’ Physical Safety

According to the statistics by the Criminal Investigation Bureau of the National Police Administration of the Ministry of Interior, the number of victims of sex crimes increased every year from 1997 to 2000. The age distribution of the victims mostly concentrates on girls between ages 12 to 17. Approximately 80% of the sex crimes are perpetrated by acquaintances. It is evident that sexually molested girls are disadvantaged or are being controlled in acquaintance relationships.

Girls’ Right to be Healthy

The number of under-aged girls having sexual experiences is increasing. However, these girls lack the concept of safe sex. Thus, the problem of under-aged pregnancy becomes more and more serious. At the present, under-aged unwed pregnant girls give birth to approximately 10,000 babies every year. This causes a tremendous stress and harm to the girls who are not yet mature physically and psychologically. Also, according to an investigation, if girls found out they were pregnant, 55 to 60% of the girls will choose abortion. Because girls are afraid to let their parents know they are pregnant, 75 to 80% of the pregnant girls will go to unlicensed doctors or go through illegal channels to purchase abortion pills to abort the babies themselves. This seriously endangers girls’ health and lives.

The Objectification of Girls’ Personhood

The Taiwan phenomenon of using girl images as the added value of the commodities, from the beetle nut beauties (girls dressed in skimpy cloth and selling beetle nuts in the stands by the streets), saloon PR princesses (girls dressed in skimpy cloth to host guests in saloons) and teahouse babes (girls dressed in skimpy cloth and work as waitress in teahouses) to the various types of beauty contests on the television programs and websites, what the general public see are not “human beings” with feelings, emotions and thoughts. Instead, these young girls became an object with sex appeals to be evaluated and selected. In this paternalistic society, the value of objectifying young girls is also grinded into the impressions of young girls and those around them through the mass media and subsequently molded young girls’ recognition of self- image and other’s attitudes toward young girls.

Girls are Objects of Sexual Exploitation

Taiwan enacted the Law to Prevent Sexual Transaction Involving Children and Youth in 1995. Hence, there is a legal basis to address the problem of sexual exploitation of children and youth. However, the problems of commercialization of young girls’ bodies and the sexual exploitation of young girls continue to exist. The sex traps facing young girls are ever changing when they are looking for jobs, from saloon PR princesses and teahouse babes to the now-popular support escorts (girls working as female escorts in exchange for monetary return/support). Although the sexual transactions take on different forms, the nature of the sexual exploitation does not change.

 

In view of the seriousness of the problems involving young girls, the problems with discrimination, exploitation and inequality will continue from a girl’s youth to her adulthood. We believe that educating young girls on women’s right should begin in youth. Also, preventive, developmental and remedial measures should be taken to protect young girls’ rights instead of using reparative and selective welfare measures to compensate for the harm done.

In order for young Taiwanese girls to spring into an environment with self-esteem, value and sexual equality, we hereby proclaim this Declaration of Human Rights for Young Girls.


Article I Protection of Young Girls from Sexual Exploitation

A nation should protect young girls from any form of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. At the same time, nations should cooperate to take bilateral and multi-lateral measures to prevent young girls from being sexually exploited and abused by foreign nationals.

Article II Protection of Young Girls’ Rights to Work and Protest Against Commercialization of Young Girls


To stop the capitalist society from using young girls’ bodies and images as added value to the commodity and the phenomenon of hiring young girls to work in the sex industry, a nation should enact adequate laws and regulations to protect young girls’ rights to work and prohibit the hiring of young girls for work that is harmful to young girls’ health, body, mind and spirit, ethics or social development.

Article III Protest Against Sexual Violence

In order to provide women with the basic rights and physical safety in the public and private arenas, besides the legislative and social measures taken to ensure personal safety, a sex-neutral and aggressive
development of anti-sex violence measures should be taken and applied to youth from the beginning of their development of intimate relationships with people other then their families in order to ensure young girls’ basic personal safety.

Article IV Prevention of Accidental Pregnancy by Young Girls and Protect Unwed Pregnant Girls’ Basic Rights and Interests

In order to prevent grave stress and harm to young girls due to accidental pregnancy, educating young girls to prevent accidental pregnancy should be done through means of education and mass media. Support and services should also be provided to young girls who are pregnant and protect pregnant young girls’ rights and interests in health and education from being exploited.

Article V Protection of Physically and Psychologically Challenged Young Girls

With regard to the welfare services and protection measures for physically and psychologically challenged young girls, the emphasis should be on the reinforcement of the view on sexual equality to prevent physically and psychologically challenged young girls from becoming a high risk group for violence or sexual abuse.

Article VI Construction of Sexual Equality in the Society

The sex stereotype and the classification of social roles by sex are exploitation of women’s human rights. Therefore, during the stage of early development of sex identification, family, school and social education should strengthen youth’s concept of sex equality and empower young girls’ autonomy to construct a society with sexual equality.

Article VII Appropriate Portrayal of Young Girls in the Mass Media

The mass media plays an important role in the society. In order to prevent young girls’ personhood from being objectified, the mass media should be encouraged to portray and broadcast social and cultural information that are beneficial to young girls and develop appropriate information indicators.

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